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  1. bound or free ion current within solid substances
  2. non-plain symmetry
  3. cumulation of the ion interaction
  4. cold nuclear fusion

Another keywords: polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, melt, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis, cone, slope, slopes.

An experimental result: Ice SuperPolarization.

Questions and answers.

Numerical simulation results.

Long-time-current experimental result with conical cathode:
Part I.
Part II. NEW

Whether it is clear that if the top rod is hard compared with the array of particles, surrounding it, then the region pointed interacts only with the rod. So, little forces between the particles at the food of the chart concentrate up to the top. The forces are usual chemical forces of the order of interatomic interaction. The question stands is it possible to achieve 400 times concentration of the interaction.

In gases or liquids, their molecules movement will wash out the configuration. In solids, it could be another case. By temperature level option the proton and another cations mobility can be adjusted so as to save the configuration undisturbed.

The fact that the configuration is statically stable can be proved by the hard spheres or rolls model. Place the spheres or rolls (for example, balls or rollers of a bearing) level-by-level on a line or plane foundation that supports the first level and press on the top sphere or roll.

How can the configuration appear dynamically ? Let's remember a stagnation zone of a liquid flow upstream of a solid obstacle. It takes place within plane stream. Now, the top rod is a point cathode and the ion current is more spherically symmetrical making conditions of the "quiet zone" appearance more favorable. (See also Numerical simulation results.)


There is one experimental result of interest. Coated with polymeric insulation (4) the 0.25-mm-diameter copper wire (3) was sealed to the ice crystal (1). By vessel walls warming the ice crystallization was directed from the center down and laterally so that the ice crystal was visually defectless . A part of sample surfaces was covered by a room temperature aluminium foil (2). After cooling it leads to ice-aluminium adhesion and Ohmic contact. The central wire and the foil became cathode and anode by a circuit of a diode and 3.8 microF roll-off capacitor that generated about 300 V D.C. tension. An analog ammeter measured the circuit current.

At -10oC there was a (10-20)*10-6A current for long time. At -25oC the ammeter registered through a native sample a current pulse of 4 microA amplitude value and about 0.5 sec. duration. Whether there are ballistic conditions of the measurement, or the real pulse has the duration mentioned, the passing charge is about 1 microC. Its estimations by formulae for capacity of spherical or cylindrical capacitor, having pointed sizes and usual dielectric constant of the ice (about 100 [1]), give values of 2-3 orders of magnitude less.

Control samples were:

  1. a 5-mm thick ice crystal between two 2 cm2 area foil electrodes;
  2. two wires separated by 5-mm thick ice layer;
  3. an wire and a foil separated by 5-mm thick ice layer

The pulse is absent also under exchange of applied voltage polarity; if turn-on the circuit just after its turn-off, and even if there was short circuit of the electrodes for 0.5 sec. before the turn-on. The relaxation time is about several seconds.

It is believed that the only explanation is an internal strain field, appearing as consequence of proton shifts in the ice polarization course, and cumulating up to center. Because the field exists, the depolarization cannot take place simultaneously overall sample volume but expands layer-by-layer from the sample surface to its center taking much more time than the polarization did.

There are also long time current results of interest but they are not so clear because of surface current possibility and strong conductivity variation as function of temperature, impurity and so on.(See also Long time current experimental result with conical cathode. )

Another substances should be searched to enhance the effect. There are many requests to them. The most important thing is electron conductivity of the same order of magnitude as proton (ion) conductivity. Only one new layer of protons on a 0.1-mm diameter point surface would lead to several millions V potential as compared to an infinity. Many such layers should be discharged within the dielectric.

Quartz, ferrites, corundum and so on could be tried at high temperature (1000 K and higher). They are naturally nonstoichiometric crystals or intrinsic semiconductors. But now I try a Na-doped NaOH-crystal.

If you have got references to analog investigations, or you know industrial technology under analog conditions please send me e-mail: to2084@mail.ru. I could send more detailed TeX-article and solid current problematic references (in Russian mainly).

1. D.Eisenberg, V.Kauzman, The Structure and Properties of Water, London: Oxford University Press. 1969.










The force multiplier required (400) has a nuclear origin. The muon catalysis investigations [2] got analytic methods of nuclear fusion probability calculations for two particles held on some distance. For example, in muon molecules (HD, DD), where internuclear distance is about one-two-hundredth of one in usual hydrogen molecule, the reaction time is about 10^-8 s. For 1-sec. reaction time, one-twentieth of the Bohr radius is required, i.e. about of 400 times of usual molecule force (atomic force unity).

2. Ya.B.Zel'dovich, S.S.Gershtein, Uspekhi Fiz.Nauk, v.71, 581 (1960).











Air bubbles were 5-mm deeper of the wire point. The defect may be important for the cumulation region appearance. Decreased axial proton concentration leads to more particles mobility into the axial zone, and increases the force cumulation region independence of its environment.


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